Talking about the industrial revolution is about the great change that it brings about in economic, cultural, and social fields.
Looking back at history, people have experienced many great scientific and technological revolutions. Each revolution is characterized by a change in the nature of production and this change is caused by the breakthroughs of science and technology.
Let’s look back at the history of industrial revolutions in the world!
The first industrial revolution
The world’s first industrial revolution began in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, starting with the mechanization of the textile industry. At that time, the textile factories had to be located near the river to take advantage of the running water, which caused inconvenience in many aspects.
In 1784, James Watt, an experimental assistant at a university, invented the steam engine. Thanks to this invention, the textile factory can be placed anywhere. This invention is considered to be the beginning of the mechanization process. In 1785, Father Edmund Cartwright produced an important invention in the textile industry, the loom. This machine has increased weaving productivity up to 40 times.
During this period, the metallurgical industry also made great strides. In 1784, Henry Cort found a way to practice “puddling” iron. Although the method of Henry Cort has refined the quality of iron, it still does not meet the requirements of the durability of the machine. In 1885, Henry Bessemer invented a blast furnace capable of smelting liquid iron into steel, overcoming the disadvantages of the previous machine.
The advance of the transportation industry was marked by the introduction of the first steam locomotive in 1804. By 1829, the train speed had reached 14 mph. This success has exploded rail systems in Europe and the US. In 1807, Robert Fulton built a steamboat to replace oars or sails.